2021-04-17 12:28:28

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ENGLISH CHAPTER IXThe engineering apprentice, as a rule, has a desire to make drawings as soon as he begins his studies or his work, and there is not the least objection to his doing so; in fact, there is a great deal gained by illustrating movements and the details of machinery at the same time of studying the principles. Drawings if made should always be finished, carefully inked in, and memoranda made on the margin of the sheets, with the date and the conditions under which the drawings were made. The sheets should be of uniform size, not too large for a portfolio, and carefully preserved, no matter how imperfect they may be. An apprentice who will preserve his first drawings in this manner will some day find himself in possession of a souvenir that no consideration would cause him to part with.

Many soldiers, probably most of them, were undoubtedly of good faith, and believed what they related; but the damnable notion had been put into their heads by their superiors. That is why I do not consider it impossible that some places were wrecked on account of alleged acts by francs-tireurs.Good fitting is often not so much a question of skill as of the standard which a workman has fixed in his mind, and to which all that he does will more or less conform. If this standard is one of exactness and precision, all that is performed, whether it be filing, turning, planing, or drawing, will come to this standard. This faculty of mind can be defined no further than to say that it is an aversion to whatever is imperfect, and a love for what [171] is exact and precise. There is no faculty which has so much to do with success in mechanical pursuits, nor is there any trait more susceptible of cultivation. Methodical exactness, reasoning, and persistence are the powers which lead to proficiency in engineering pursuits.

"No, no, I won't take anything for it. It is hot, is it not, and a soldier ought to get something...."The term gearing, which was once applied to wheels, shafts, and the general mechanism of mills and factories, has now in common use become restricted to tooth wheels, and is in this sense employed here. Gearing as a means of transmitting motion is employed when the movement of machines, or the parts of machines, must remain relatively the same, as in the case of the traversing screw of an engine lathewhen a heavy force is transmitted between shafts that are near to each other, or when shafts to be connected are arranged at angles with each other. This rule is of course not constant, except as to cases where positive relative motion has to be maintained. Noise, and the liability to sudden obstruction, may be reasons for not employing tooth wheels in many cases when the distance between and the position of shafts would render such a connection the most durable and cheap. Gearing under ordinary strain, within limited speed, and when other conditions admit of its use, is the cheapest and most durable mechanism for transmitting power; but the amount of gearing employed in machinery, especially in Europe, is no doubt far greater than it will be in future, when belts are better understood.At Vis many men had been commanded to do certain kinds of work, cutting down trees, making of roads, bridges, and so on. Many of them never returned, because they refused to do the humiliating work and were shot. Among these there were even aged people; and I myself stood by the death-bed of a man of ninety, who had been forced to assist in building a bridge, until the poor wretch broke down and was carried to St. Hadelin College, turned into a hospital by Dr. Goffin; there he died.

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Beginning at the tool there is, first, a clamped joint between the tool and the swing block; second, a movable pivoted joint between the block and shoe piece; third, a clamped joint between the shoe piece and the front saddle; fourth, a moving joint [131] where the front saddle is gibed to the swing or quadrant plate; fifth, a clamp joint between the quadrant plate and the main saddle; sixth, a moving joint between the main saddle and the cross head; seventh, a clamp joint between the cross head and standards; and eighth, bolted joints between the standards and the main frame; making in all eight distinct joints between the tool and the frame proper, three moving, four clamped, and one bolted joint.It was a chilly night, and a dense heavy fog made it impossible to see anything.... My "bed-fellows" raged and fumed at me, saying that I was one of those villains who had treacherously shot at them. I shivered from the cold, and felt, as it were,128 the dampness of the wet stone floor entering my system.Before I got there I passed the Halls of Louvain, the building that contained the world-famous library, with its numerous art-treasures. Only the outer walls were left standing, inside it was all ruins. All was reduced to dust, to miserable rubbish, and never will one single page be recovered of all those thousands of burned manuscripts.

"German sappers and other military men cleared away the dead and the wounded. They also discovered General Leman, whose orderlies, who had a miraculous escape from death, were already busy in rescuing him from underneath the ruins.After this the officer examined my papers carefully one by one, and had to admit that they were in perfect order. Still, he had no authority to take a decision before I had been seen by the commanding officer.

That mad fury was also intensified considerably by the accusations about gruesome mutilations committed on German soldiers by Belgians, who were said to have cut off the noses, ears, genitals, and so on of their enemies. These rumours were so persistent that in the end it was generally believed in neutral countries that these things had happened frequently."3. That everything that may appear hostile to the German army must be avoided with the utmost care.

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The lifting strain at the front end of a platen is of course increased as the height at which the cutting is done above its top, but this has not in practice been found a difficulty of any importance, and has not even required extra length or weight of platens beyond what is demanded to receive pieces to be planed and to resist flexion in fastening heavy work. The reversing movement of planing machine platens already alluded to is one of the most complex problems in machine tool movement.Patterns that are deep, and for castings that require to be parallel or square when finished, are made with the least possible amount of draught. If a pattern is a plain form, that affords [99] facilities for lifting or drawing, it may be drawn without taper if its sides are smooth and well finished. Pieces that are shallow and moulded often should, as a matter of convenience, have as much taper as possible; and as the quantity of draught can be as the depth of a pattern, we frequently see them made with a taper that exceeds one inch to the foot of depth.

I shuddered at the thought that in these days such barbarities were possible. I asked the soldiers whether I was allowed to enter the burning village, but the commanding sergeant refused his consent.Reviewing these mechanical conditions, we may at once see sufficient reasons for the platen movement of planing machines; and that it would be objectionable, if not impossible, to add a traversing or cutting action to tools already supported through the medium of eight joints. To traverse for cutting would require a moving gib joint in place of the bolted one, between the standards and main frame, leading to a complication of joints and movements quite impracticable.

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Apr-17 12:28:28